Struggling with CARS? Check out passage 8 from Next Step Test Prep, full-length 10. Listen to the struggles, learn from the mistakes to improve your MCAT score.
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[02:33] Passage 8
The question of principle retreated here from a purely economical point of view since practical value measured by saving time, money, and effort must be the ultimate criterion by which the success or failure of so far, reaching a reform as in the introduction of an international auxiliary language will be decided. The bearing is such a reform of how an education, culture, race relations, etc., is not without importance. But the discussion of these points must be postponed as subsidiary. Democracy, science, and universal education are producing everywhere, similarities of institutions, of industry, of the whole organization of life. The similarity of life will breed a community of interest. And from this arises real converse, more give and take in the things that matter less purely superficial dealings of the guidebook or a conversation-manual type. The tendency of those engaged in advancing material progress which consist in this objection of nature to men’s ends is to adapt more and more quickly their methods to change in conditions. Has the world yet faced in a business-like spirit the problem of wiping out wastage on words?
The whole industrial revolution brought about by the invention of machinery depended upon this principle. When it was found that machinery would turn out a hundred pieces of cloth while the handloom turned at one, the handloom was doomed. Tests previously done laboriously by hand and hundreds of weeders cottages were now brought together in a single cotton mill. And a factory was born.
Consumers had a little difficulty adapting to the new age of abundant products with linen manufactured. Governments, however, found that significantly harder. The instinct of governments is to protect unions and companies that already exist, not the upstarts that would destroy them. They shower old factories with subsidies and persecute bosses who want to move production. Governmental agencies spend countless funds backing the techniques and methods which they and their wisdom think will prevail. And they claim to mistaken notion that manufacturing is superior to services, let alone economics.
Since the publication of a language in 1887, Esperanto has had a gradually increasing number of appearance who have used it for all ordinary purposes of communication. A great number of newspapers and reviews of all kinds are now published regularly in Esperanto in a great variety of countries. Articles are as clearly expressed and as easy to read as those in any similar review in a national language. Now, as the nations will never agree to give the preference to the language of one of them to the prejudice of the others, even where an artificial language to be no easier to learn than a natural one, the choice will be obvious.
[05:57] Question 43
Supposed China were to dominate the international manufacturing market, with this country being the one that every other nation needed to communicate and trade with, the passage author would likely argue that:
- (A) The predominant Chinese dialect be accepted as a de facto international language.
- (B) The least economically powerful international trading nation be given the advantage of providing a lingua franca.
- (C) An artificial language should still be designated for international discussions so each nation is on equal footing.
- (D) Either Chinese or another national or artificial language be chosen, whichever minimizes total languages learned.
The answer here is C. In fact, this is a good exercise for students not to overthink. There is a part of the passage that is actually direct, which is the last paragraph. This is where the author’s opinion comes out. Clara recommends highlighting extreme and strong language. And the word “never” is really extreme – “…nations will never agree to give the preference to the language of one of them to the prejudice of the others even where an artificial language to be no easier to learn than a natural one, the choice will be obvious.”
So you can see from here that even if the author is saying that the artificial language is just as hard to learn than a natural language, the choice is obvious. And the beginning of that sentence tells us that his choice is obvious that we should pick the artificial language. And it’s worth stopping taking even 15 seconds to figure out what is that choice. That way, you’re giving a little more time and you know it’s important because the author is so strongly worded there.
Students choosing A and D are evenly split here, as the most tempting choice. While B is easy to eliminate because it seems logically backward to do.
[12:26] Question 44
Which of the following would weaken the passage’s argument for the adoption of an artificial official international language?
- (A) Dozens of non-Anglophone heritage countries in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America have since adopted English as a second official language for ease of international communication.
- (B) Each year, several heritage languages of small, affluent populations die, being preserved only in books and in the speaking knowledge of a few specialists.
- (C) Globalization thanks to increased transportation infrastructure and satellite and internet-based communication have brought in smaller, more isolated countries into the world trade market.
- (D) A comparison study suggests that several leading artificial languages are neither easier nor more difficult to learn than a majority of natural languages.
For this, you can use the process of elimination and the correct answer here is A. B is tragic but not relevant at all. While in C and D agree with his argument. So it leaves you with A.
[15:30] Question 45
Based on the passage, which of the following would the author least likely cite as a possible non economic benefit to an established artificial international language?
- (A) A decrease in ethnic tensions
- (B) An improvement in international education
- (C) A cultural advancement in participating countries
- (D) A strengthening of democracy across the world
A and B were mentioned as important so you cross this one off. C is also listed there. The correct answer here is D here since it wasn’t listed. Interestingly, this is missed by a lot of their students even though those three terms have been listed in the passage. Clara thinks the reason for this is that democracy has been mentioned too, but later. So they see that D might be something they can cross out too. But in reality, that was discussed separately, and not as an important result of this language change. It’s reather discussed as democracy is reducing this similarity of institutions, sort of environment that makes the language change more of something we would want to do.
[18:00] Question 47
Four possible languages are put forth as an acceptable international language. Which of the following would the author most likely agree should be used as the international language?
- (A) English as a total volume of international commerce carried out in English is already higher than any other language.
- (B) Mandarin Chinese as a total number of native speakers of this language is the largest in the world.
- (C) Esperanto as it has been constructed to have logical syntax and grammar making it easier to learn than national languages.
- (D) Binary code as it is already the language used by computers and is thus 100% logically constructed and executed.
The correct answer here is C. You know the author is very pro on artificial language and we know Esperanto is an artificial language. We also certainly know that English and Mandarin Chinese are actual national language. So Esperanto is the only artificial language in there so it must be the right answer. The rest of the answer choices make sense too so it’s important to check out. But as soon as you see that first part of the answer, you know that C is correct.
[21:30] Tips and Tricks
Clara recommends some suggestions to get around the questions even there’s no tutor in your ear. When you don’t fully understand what’s going in the passage, keep an open mind with previous questions because a later question might actually eliminate more of the passage than you understood before. This way, you don’t force your thinking into the previous correct answer you got for the later questions.
[23:05] Next Step Test Prep
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